Wednesday, 19 April 2017

Stories of Objects Part 4: Identities, statuses and heritages / 身份、地位与继承 / 身份、地位與繼承


Clothing may signify adulthood, nationality, or status, wealth, or whether one is married. Traditional outfits or national costumes may be important visible displays of identity. They can also connect the wearer to their ancestry or community.

On the other hand, identities are created as individuals. Personal experiences and achievements may be sources of empowerment. Various memorabilia or utilitarian objects may serve as mementos of these experiences.




A three-year-old Kurdish boy’s outfit is made up of a top, trousers, cloth belt, vest made of camel’s wool, and kalash shoes as seen in the next image. The costume is similar to that of adult men’s, and it is worn by Kurdish people in Iran and Iraq. They differ slightly from one another in different regions. Originally the outfit has been worn by shepherds, and the wide shoulder extensions of the warm vest served to intimidate and make the wearer look bigger. Today the outfit is also sometimes worn in cities but without the woolen vest.







These kalash shoes are part of a three-year-old Kurdish boy’s outfit. The shoes are comfortable and very durable. Men have worn them also during war as they are neither too hot nor cold, and they are good for the back.
Women may make kalash shoes by hand. According to the informant, the soles are made of leather, wood and sheep’s intestine. Narrow strips of wood from a walnut tree are glued together in layers with pieces of leather and left to dry under a weight for several days. When the sole is finished, the rest of the shoe is crocheted out of thread.




The ribbon of this Vietnamese women’s hat can be changed according to the colour of the rest of the outfit. In the countryside people wear it on the rice fields, and high school girls wear it together with their school uniform. It shields from both rain and the sun. The hat is made by hand from individually fixed plant leaves. The thinner and lighter the hat is, the more valuable it is. Looking at the hat against light, patterns can be distinguished on the inside, revealing its place of manufacture. This hat depicts a famous pagoda, and it has been made in northern Vietnam.






A bunch of keys may look like an everyday object, but to me its ten parts are of great importance.

In addition to keys, the keyring contains various keychains and USB memory sticks. The owner has saved her schoolwork and a number of other important files on them. Each keychain reminds her of some kind of an achievement, such as for taking part in conferences. Some of the keychains have been received as gifts from friends and serve as something to remember them by. The most important keychain is the one with the Albanian flag and an image of the national hero Gjergj Kastirot Skenderbeu. To its owner, the keychain signifies being proud of her Albanian roots despite having encountered prejudice.




My relatives had to leave their properties and their land, and they still chose to take this piece of dinnerware with them because it was part of their culture, their refinement and their society. I find that striking.

This bowl made out of milk glass is decorated with ornaments such as dragons and seashells. It used to belong to the present owner’s great-grandmother, and it is currently in Greece. It was used at tea or coffee time as a dish for serving jam that had large pieces of fruit in it. Her great-grandmother’s family originally came from Smyrna, now part of coastal Turkey. They were part of a wealthy Greek community. In 1922 Smyrna was destroyed and all of its inhabitants had to leave for Greece. Her family suffered from poverty and had to move constantly before finding a place to settle down. The bowl travelled with them. At some point is has cracked but it had been glued back together.




This stamp is meant for signing Chinese calligraphy paintings, and it belongs to a German student. She worked as a volunteer at a Taiwanese school, teaching English. For their classes, Taiwanese students had to come up with English names for themselves. Therefore, she wished to adopt a Chinese name. This was surprisingly difficult, and in the end her students came up with the name for her. It was partially based on her surname, but the name also means ‘bright’ and the ‘first sunlight in the morning’.
In Taiwan the owner of the stamp had the opportunity to learn Chinese calligraphy – an art form which she had admired for a long time. The stamp bears her Chinese name, and it was given to her by a teacher she was working with at the time.





The owner of these earrings belongs to a family of gold merchants. They have manufactured jewellery for many generations. Their family is known for their jewellery across Iraq.







This koufiyye scarf belongs to my brother, and it is from Palestine. I have not been to Palestine myself, but my grandfather has told me a lot of stories about his life there.

To its owner, the scarf is a symbol of her grandfather’s heritage and Palestinian roots. People have identified themselves as Palestinians by wearing them during war, and elderly men still often wear koufiyye scarves. They have become iconic pieces of clothing as the former president Jasser Arafat was often seen wearing one. The pattern on the scarf has been utilised also in other clothing, even hotpants.




Every girl dreams of wearing saree once she reaches the age of eighteen. Wearing a saree means different things to different people. It is fashion for some, tradition for others. I associate it with my mother and her beliefs. It reminds me of my culture even if I am living seven oceans away from my home country.

Saree is a traditional Indian outfit for women and it is still worn today. It measures about 8 yards in length, and it is draped onto the wearer in different ways in different parts India.  Sarees come in various colours and fabrics. A newly married woman wears a red saree. White, on the other hand, is a colour for mourning.



Simplified Chinese:

身份、地位与继承

服饰可以表明一个人成年与否,表明其国籍、地位、财富或婚姻状况。传统服装与民族服饰是身份重要且直观的表现。它也将穿着者与其先辈或群体联系在一起。

从另一方面来说,身份是作为个体而创造的。个人经历或成就会加深个体感。各种具有纪念意义的或实用的东西能够使人回忆起这些经历。

 

库尔德男孩服装

图片中的这套三岁库尔德男孩的服装包括上衣、裤子、裤带、骆驼制成的背心和卡拉什鞋kalash shoes这套儿童服装与成年男子的服装相似,是伊朗和伊拉克地区库尔德人的服装。不同地区的服装略有不同。起初,这种服装由牧羊人穿着。将温暖的背心肩部做宽是为了使穿着者具有威慑力,看起来更加魁梧。如今在城市中,人们有时也会穿着这样的服装,不过不会穿毛质背心。

 

卡拉什鞋

这双卡拉什kalash shoes)是一位三岁库尔德男孩的服装的一部分。这种鞋子非常舒适耐穿。在战争期间,男人们就穿着这种鞋子,因为它冷暖合宜,且对背部有好处。

卡拉什鞋一般由妇女们手工制作。据消息来源者介绍,鞋底是由皮革、木材与羊肠制作而成的。将核桃树的窄木条与皮革一层层粘合在一起,上面压以重物干燥若干天。鞋底完成后,鞋的其它部分以线钩织而成。

 

越南女性斗笠

根据整体服装的颜色,越南女性会更换其斗笠上的丝带。在农村的稻田上,人们会戴上这样的斗笠。高中女生们则会以斗笠搭配校服。斗笠可以遮阳蔽雨。通过分别固定一片片叶子,用手工的方法制作斗笠。斗笠越薄越轻,价值越高。将斗笠对着光源,可以从内侧看出斗笠的式样。这顶斗笠样如一座有名的宝塔,它是在越南北部制造的。

 

一串钥匙

一串钥匙看上去是再日常不过的东西了。不过,对我来说,这串钥匙上的十件东西全都非常重要。

除了钥匙以外,钥匙环上还有几个钥匙串和U盘。U盘上保存了钥匙所有者的学校作业和许多其它重要的文件。每一个钥匙链都能使她想起自己完成的某件事情,比如参加的会议。有些钥匙链是友人赠送的礼物,这让她想起了那些朋友。这之中最重要的是一个带着阿尔巴尼亚国旗与民族英雄乔治·卡斯特里奥蒂·斯坎德培Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu)图像的钥匙链。对钥匙环的主人来说,这个钥匙链代表了她身为阿尔巴尼亚人的自豪感,尽管遭受过偏见。

 


乳白玻璃碗

我的亲人们不得不丢下他们的物品离开他们的家园,但是他们仍然选择带上这件餐具,因为这是他们文化、精致生活与社会的一部分。这使我很震动。

这只碗由乳白玻璃制成,上面装饰以龙与贝壳的图样。这只碗曾属于现主人的曾祖母所有,该碗现在保存于希腊。在饮茶或喝咖啡的时候,他们会用这个碗盛放有大颗粒果肉的果酱。物主的曾祖母出生于现属土耳其沿海地区的士麦那Smyrna),他们原本属于一个富有的希腊社区。1922年,士麦那城遭到毁坏,所有的居民都不得不奔赴希腊。她的家人遭受了贫困,不得不为了找到栖身之所而不断搬家。在此期间,这只碗一直与他们一家人同行。碗上有处破损,不过已重新用胶修补好了。

 

中国书法中印章

在中国书法中印章被用于署名。这枚印章属于一位德国学生,她曾在一所台湾学校担任志愿者教授英语。在英语课上,台湾学生们必须给自己起英语名字。于是,她也希望能够拥有一个中文名字。最终她的学生们为她选定了一个名字,尽管过程非常不易。这个中文名字是基于她自己的姓氏而起的,名字包含着早晨的第一缕阳光的意义。

印章的所有者在台湾学习了中国书法。这是一门她自己一直非常喜欢的艺术技艺。这枚印章上刻有她的中文名字,是由物主当时一起工作的一位同事老师赠送给她的。

 

耳环

这些耳环属于一家金匠。这个家族的好几代人一直从事着珠宝制作的事业。在伊拉克,这家制作珠宝的家族很有名。

 

 
巴勒斯坦头巾Keffiyeh”

这条巴勒斯坦头巾(keffiyeh)是我的兄弟的。我没有去过巴勒斯坦,但是我的祖父告诉了我许多他生活在那里时发生的故事。


对头巾的主人来说,头巾象征着她祖父的传承与巴勒斯坦血统。战时,人们戴着这种头巾以表明自己巴勒斯坦人的身份,年长些的男子仍常常佩戴这种头巾。巴勒斯坦前总统亚西尔·阿拉法特(Jasser Arafat)曾经常被看到佩戴这种头巾,它已经成了一种具有象征意义的衣饰。围巾上的图案也被用于其它服饰上,它甚至还被用在了热裤上。

 

印度传统服饰莎丽

每个女孩都梦想着在18岁时穿上莎丽saree)。对不同人来说,穿着莎丽有着不同的意义。对一些人来说是时尚,对另一些人来说是传统。对于我来说,它意味着我的母亲以及她的信仰。它使我想到了自己的文化,尽管现在的我与祖国隔开了千山万水。
莎丽是一种使用至今的传统的印度女性服饰。莎丽长约8码。在印度不同的地方,莎丽披穿的方式不同。莎丽的颜色与面料种类非常多。新婚女子穿着红色的莎丽,悼念时则穿白色的莎丽



Traditional Chinese:



身份、地位與繼
服飾可以表明一個人成年與否,表明其國籍、地位、財富或婚姻狀況。傳統服裝與民族服飾是身份重要的可見展現。它也將穿著者與其祖先或群體聯繫在一起。
另一方面,身份是作為個體而創造的。個人經歷或成就會加深個體感。各種具有紀念意義的或實用的東西能夠使人回憶起這些經歷
 

庫爾德男孩服裝
圖片中的這套三歲庫爾德男孩的服裝包括上衣、褲子、褲帶、駱駝毛製成的背心和卡拉什鞋kalash shoes。這套兒童服裝與成年男子的服裝相似,是伊朗和伊拉克地區庫爾德人的服裝。不同地區的服裝略有不同。起初,這種服裝由牧羊人穿著。將溫暖的背心肩部做寬是為了使穿著者俱有威懾力,看起來更加魁梧。如今在城市中,人們有時也會穿著這樣的服裝,不過不會穿毛質背心
 

卡拉什鞋
這對卡拉什鞋(kalash shoes)是一位三歲庫爾德男孩的服裝的一部分。這種鞋子非常舒適耐穿。在戰爭期間,男人們就穿著這種鞋子,因為它冷暖合宜,且對背部有好處。
卡拉什鞋一般由婦女們手工製作。據消息來源者介紹,鞋底是由皮革、木材與羊腸製作而成的。將核桃樹的窄木條與皮革一層層粘合在一起,上面壓以重物乾燥若干天。鞋底完成後,鞋的其它部分以線鉤織而成

 
越南女性斗笠
根據整體服裝的顏色,越南女性會更換其斗笠上的絲帶。在農村的稻田上,人們會戴上這樣的斗笠。高中女生們則會以斗笠搭配校服。斗笠可以遮陽蔽雨。通過分別固定一片片葉子,用手工的方法製作斗笠。斗笠越薄越輕,價值越高。將斗笠對著光源,可以從內側看出斗笠的式樣。這頂斗笠樣如一座有名的寶塔,它是在越南北部製造的
 


一串鑰匙
一串鑰匙看上去是再日常不過的東西了。不過,對我來說,這串鑰匙上的十件東西全都非常重要
除了鑰匙以外,鑰匙圈上還有幾個鑰匙串和USB記憶棒。USB記憶棒上保存了物主的學校作業和許多其它重要的文件。每一個鑰匙圈都能使她想起自己完成的某件事情,比如參加的會議。有些鑰匙圈是友人贈送的禮物,這讓她想起了那些朋友。這之中最重要的是一個帶著阿爾巴尼亞國旗與民族英雄喬治·卡斯特里奧蒂·斯坎德培(Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu)圖像的鑰匙圈。對鑰匙圈的主人來說,這個鑰匙圈代表了她身為阿爾巴尼亞人的自豪感,儘管遭受過偏見
 

乳白玻璃碗
我的親人們不得不丟下他們的物品離開他們的家園,但是他們仍然選擇帶上這件餐具,因為這是他們文化、精緻生活與社會的一部分。這使我很震動
這只碗由乳白玻璃製成,上面裝飾以龍與貝殼的圖案。這個碗曾屬於現主人的曾祖母所有,該碗現在保存於希臘。在飲茶或喝咖啡的時候,他們會用這個碗盛放有大顆粒果肉的果醬。物主的曾祖母出生於現屬土耳其沿海地區的士麥那(Smyrna),他們原本屬於一個富有的希臘社區。 1922年,士麥那城遭到毀壞,所有的居民都不得不奔赴希臘。她的家人飽受貧困之苦,不得不為了找到棲身之所而不斷搬家。在此期間,這個碗一直與他們一家人同行。這個碗曾經損壞,不過已重新修補好


中國書法印章
在中國書法中印章被用於署名。這枚印章屬於一位德國學生,她曾在一所台灣學校擔任義工教授英語。在英語課上,台灣學生們必須給自己起英語名字。於是,她也希望能夠擁有一個中文名字。最終她的學生們為她選定了一個名字,儘管過程非常不易。這個中文名字是基於她自己的姓氏而起的,名字包含著“光”與“早晨的第一縷陽光”的意義。
物主在台灣學習了中國書法。這是一門她自己一直非常喜歡的藝術技藝。這枚印章上刻有她的中文名字,是由物主當時一起工作的一位同事老師贈送給她的
 

耳環
這些耳環屬於一家金匠。這個家族的好幾代人一直從事著珠寶製作的事業。在伊拉克,這家製作珠寶的家族很有名
 

巴勒斯坦頭巾─  Keffiyeh 
這條巴勒斯坦頭巾(keffiyeh)是我的兄弟的。我沒有去過巴勒斯坦,但是我的祖父告訴了我許多他生活在那裡時發生的故事
對頭巾的主人來說,頭巾象徵著她祖父的傳承與巴勒斯坦血統。戰時,人們戴著這種頭巾以表明自己巴勒斯坦人的身份,年長些的男子仍常常佩戴這種頭巾。巴勒斯坦前總統亞西爾·阿拉法特(Jasser Arafat)曾經常被看到佩戴這種頭巾,它已經成了一種具有像徵意義的衣飾。圍巾上的圖案也被用於其它服飾上,它甚至還被用在了熱褲上
 

印度傳統女性服飾─莎麗
每個女孩都夢想著在18歲時穿上莎麗(saree)。對不同人來說,穿著莎麗有著不同的意義。對一些人來說是時尚,對另一些人來說是傳統。對於我來說,它意味著我的母親以及她的信仰。它使我想到了自己的文化,儘管現在的我與祖國相隔了千山萬水

莎麗是一種使用至今的傳統的印度女性服飾。莎麗長約8碼。在印度不同的地方,莎麗披穿的方式不同。莎麗的顏色與面料種類非常多。新婚女子穿著紅色的莎麗,悼念時則穿白色的莎麗







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